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蔬菜冷链加工智能工厂建设全程解决方案

张克 刘建新 王露延 李培刚 王冰 宋燕燕

张克,刘建新,王露延,等.蔬菜冷链加工智能工厂建设全程解决方案[J].农业工程,2022,12(8):56-61. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.010
引用本文: 张克,刘建新,王露延,等.蔬菜冷链加工智能工厂建设全程解决方案[J].农业工程,2022,12(8):56-61. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.010
ZHANG Ke,LIU Jianxin,WANG Luyan,et al.Whole process solution for construction of vegetable cold chain processing smart factory[J].Agricultural Engineering,2022,12(8):56-61. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.010
Citation: ZHANG Ke,LIU Jianxin,WANG Luyan,et al.Whole process solution for construction of vegetable cold chain processing smart factory[J].Agricultural Engineering,2022,12(8):56-61. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.010

蔬菜冷链加工智能工厂建设全程解决方案

doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.010
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张克,博士,主要从事农产品加工及贮藏保鲜技术研究E-mail:zhangkebbd@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS255

Whole Process Solution for Construction of Vegetable Cold Chain Processing Smart Factory

  • 摘要:

    近年来我国食品工业保持高质量快速发展,领军企业正借助“工业4.0”物理信息等系统的融合,建立智能工厂,实现多品种、小批量、个性化生产和全过程信息化监测,保障食品安全。我国蔬菜产量居世界前列,多数净菜加工企业设备技术水平低、劳动密度大、工作效率低、标准体系缺乏,难以保障净菜品质,急需自动化、信息化、智能化水平的提升。结合智能工厂建设现状及净菜加工重要企业的智能化发展,为蔬菜现代化生产工厂的建设提供参考。

     

  • 表  1  蔬菜清洗杀菌技术及设备

    Table  1.   Technology and equipment of vegetable cleaning and sterilization

    工序名称技术和设备名称应用范围特点
    清洗杀菌技术
    设备
    噬菌体杀菌技术灭杀外源引入的食源性致病菌特异性强、自我增殖快[16]
    强酸性电解水杀菌技术蔬菜清洗、除杂后的全面杀菌杀菌、保鲜作用强,无化学残留[17]
    臭氧杀菌技术水果上微生物的灭杀常与超声波联合使用,杀菌迅速、作用谱广、易分解、无有害残留;设备电耗大,成本较高,运行管理比较复杂[18]
    紫外线抑菌技术特定环境下微生物的灭杀消毒速度快、效率高、占地面积小,设备操作简单,便于运行管理和实现自动化;容易遭受二次污染[19]
    次氯酸杀菌技术鲜切菜上甲胺磷等农药的消除杀菌作用强,易使产品氯残留超标;配套设备需要完成游离氯浓度及 pH 值的在线检测和自动控制[20]
    毛刷式清洗机根茎类蔬菜清洗去皮物料表面凹陷处不易清洗干净,而且清洗槽中间的物料清洗效果差,工作效率低[21]
    喷淋式清洗机常作为辅助清洗,与其他清洗方法相结合使用在清洗过程中存在盲区[22]
    滚筒式清洗机根茎类蔬菜清洗清洗效果好,但是对物料的损伤比较大[23]
    气泡式和水流式清洗机切制后尺寸较小的物料清洗对物料的作用力比较柔和,物料受损伤情况比较轻[24-26]
    超声波式清洗机蔬菜的快速解冻、清洗杀菌、去除农残物料损伤小,能有效降低致病菌和农药残留对人体造成的危害;技术设备多处于试验阶段[27]
    去皮设备摩擦去皮机根茎类蔬菜的去皮操作简单、加工成本低、处理量大;对产品表面损伤大,褐变程度增加,缺乏对局部芽眼或凹陷部分的处理[28]
    干式削皮机长条形物料的削皮无须喷水清洗皮屑,节省水资源,可连续式生产;生产效率
    较低
    卧式滚筒削皮机根茎类蔬菜的去皮生产效率高,适用大规模工业生产;损失率大,去皮不彻底,刀具的拆卸更换与清洗不方便
    刀盘式削皮机根茎类蔬菜的去皮去皮比较彻底,避免过度切削,拆装更换及维修简单,可以进行流水线生产,效率高且省水;维护成本高[29]
    立筒式削皮机较小尺寸根茎类蔬菜的去皮体积小,适用广;间歇式作业,削皮效率较低,表皮处损伤发软,耗水量大[30]
    切割设备二维切割机切丁、切条精度高、形状单一
    离心切割机切丝、切片切割均匀、碎料少、操作简单
    三维切割机立体切割处理速度快,加工质量好[31]
    往复式切割机任意厚度的片状或段状形态较好,规格调整范围大,产量高,适用范围广
    异形切割机不规则物料的切制、特殊要求的
    切制
    专用设备,需定制刀具及切割方式,切制效果较好
    脱水设备离心柔性脱水机固液混合物分离脱水效果好、振动小、噪声低、结构简单;无法实现连续式生产,放料取料需要人工操作
    卧式振动离心机固液混合物分离连续式生产,节省人工,产量大;价格较高,结构复杂
    振动沥水机表面水去除物料损伤小,可连续生产;表面水去除不彻底[32]
    风干脱水机茄果类不切割蔬菜或水果的脱水物料损伤小,适用于连续化生产
    下载: 导出CSV
    (续表 1)
    工序名称技术和设备名称应用范围特点
    包装与贴标设备裹膜包装机不切割蔬菜和水果的包装物料大小不限、包装速度快,展示效果好[33]
    枕式包装机更适合较长物料的包装不限制物料长度,包装精度高、运转平稳且操作方便[34]
    真空包装机硬质地蔬菜及切割蔬菜的长期保
    鲜包装
    操作方法简单,保鲜效果较好
    贴体包装机蔬菜的长期保鲜包装适应性较好,保鲜效果优于传统真空包装,直接展示物料外观,增加消费吸引力,方便储运[35]
    气调包装机蔬菜的高效保鲜包装保持产品的几何形状、色香味[36]
    自动贴标机自动打印贴标减少人工,提高包装质量和效率[37]
    全自动包装机包装、称量、打标、贴标等同时
    完成
    减少工序,节省设备空间,提供数据供上层系统使用,提高工厂的信息化水平[38]
    包装后检测重量检测机包装线上产品的在线重量检测将不符合质量范围的产品剔除,保证产品质量,识别精准且速度快[39]
    金属检测器检测金属杂质并自动剔除操作简单,检测速度快;有一定局限性[40]
    X射线检测机异物检测适用范围广,识别度高;价格高、推广难度大[41]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-01
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-28
  • 出版日期:  2022-08-20

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