留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

酶抑制率农药残留快检方法存在的问题及研究进展

王斌 曹丽芬 周钦方 郭柏坤 王莲芳 王雯 王丽芳 张瑜

王斌,曹丽芬,周钦方,等.酶抑制率农药残留快检方法存在的问题及研究进展[J].农业工程,2022,12(8):72-77. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.013
引用本文: 王斌,曹丽芬,周钦方,等.酶抑制率农药残留快检方法存在的问题及研究进展[J].农业工程,2022,12(8):72-77. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.013
WANG Bin,CAO Lifen,ZHOU Qinfang,et al.Problems and research progress of enzyme inhibition rapid detection of pesticide residues[J].Agricultural Engineering,2022,12(8):72-77. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.013
Citation: WANG Bin,CAO Lifen,ZHOU Qinfang,et al.Problems and research progress of enzyme inhibition rapid detection of pesticide residues[J].Agricultural Engineering,2022,12(8):72-77. doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.013

酶抑制率农药残留快检方法存在的问题及研究进展

doi: 10.19998/j.cnki.2095-1795.2022.08.013
基金项目: 浙江省市场监督管理局科研计划项目(20210136)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王斌,硕士,主要从事食品安全与分析技术研究 E-mail:471451034@qq.com

    张瑜,通信作者,工程师,主要从事食品与农产品质量安全监测研究 E-mail:fish1115@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS207.5

Problems and Research Progress of Enzyme Inhibition Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues

  • 摘要:

    以我国农产品中有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药残留情况为背景,结合酶抑制率法的检测原理,从检测标准、样品前处理、酶及试剂盒产品、仪器设备等方面分析了酶抑制率法存在的问题、研究及应用情况,并对未来如何改进酶抑制率快检方法进行展望,为提升我国食品安全快速检测水平提供参考。

     

  • 表  1  蔬菜中部分农药检出限及最大残留限量

    Table  1.   Detection limit and maximum residue limit of some pesticides in vegetables 单位:mg/kg

    序号农药名称最低检出浓度检出限检测限最大残留限量
    NY/T 448-2001GB/T 5009.199-2003KJ 201710GB 2763-2019
    1对硫磷2~41.00.01
    2甲胺磷3~52.00.05~0.10
    3敌百虫0.20.10.1~2.0
    4乐果>103.00.05~3.00
    5灭多威1~20.10.20.2
    6克百威1~20.050.020.02~0.10
    7敌敌畏0.30.10.20.1~0.5
    8氧化乐果3~50.80.02
    9丁硫克百威0.7~1.00.050.05~1.00
    10丙溴磷0.50.05~10.00
    注:GB 2763-2019中最大残留限量为范围值,代表在不同种类蔬菜中的最大残留限量。
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] KAUR R, MAVI G K, RAGHAV S, et al.Pesticides classi-fication and its impact on environment[J].International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2019, 8(3): 1 889-1 897.
    [2] 杨媚.农药残留对人体的危害及检测方法分析比较[J].甘肃农业,2019(1):114-118. doi: 10.15979/j.cnki.cn62-1104/f.2019.01.031
    [3] WANG Xuan,MU Zhongde,SHANGGUAN Fengqi,et al.Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads[J].Journal of Hazardous Materials,2014,273:287-292. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.03.006
    [4] 蔬菜和水果中有机磷、有机氯、拟除虫菊酯和氨基甲酸酯类农药多残留的测定: NY/T 761—2008[S].
    [5] 水果和蔬菜中450种农药及相关化学品残留量的测定 液相色谱−串联质谱法: GB/T 20769—2008[S].
    [6] 水果和蔬菜中500种农药及相关化学品残留量的测定 气相色谱−质谱法: GB/T 19648—2006[S].
    [7] 王川,刘勇,潘可亮,等.光谱法检测农药残留量的研究进展[J].四川化工,2010,13(6):13-16. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-4887.2010.06.005

    WANG Chuan,LIU Yong,PAN Keliang.Research progress on pesticide residue test based on spectral analysis[J].Sichuan Chemical Industry,2010,13(6):13-16. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-4887.2010.06.005
    [8] 刘丽丽.基于超高压预处理的蔬菜农药残留近红外检测技术的初步研究[D].长春: 吉林大学, 2009.

    LIU Lili.Initial study on near infrared detection in the pesticide-residues of vegetables based on the ultra-high pressure pretreatment[D].Changchun: Jilin University, 2009.
    [9] WEI Jinchao,WEI Bin,YANG Wu,et al.Trace determination of carbamate pesticides in medicinal plants by a fluorescent technique[J].Food and chemical toxicology,2018,119:430-437. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.12.019
    [10] CHENG Xiaohong, ZHANG Zhujun, TIAN Suikang.A novel long path length absorbance spectroscopy for the determination of ultra trace organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables and fruits[J].Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2007, 67(5): 1 270-1 275.
    [11] 马宏,吴宇,陈晋莹,等.生物荧光酶抑制法快速定性测定粮食中有机磷类和氨基甲酸酯类农药残留[J].中国粮油学报,2022,37(2):167-174. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-0174.2022.02.027

    MA Hong,WU Yu,CHEN Jinying,et al.Rapdi qualitative determination of organophosphorus and N-methylcarbamate pesticide residues in grain based on bioluminescence inhibition of enzyme[J].Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association,2022,37(2):167-174. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-0174.2022.02.027
    [12] 黎媛.基于纳米材料的乙酰胆碱脂酶生物传感器的制备对农药残留的分析检测[D].南昌: 南昌大学, 2020.

    LI Yuan.Preparation of acetylcholinesterase biosensor for prsticide residues based on nanometer materials[D].Nanchang: Nanchang University, 2020.
    [13] 郭思依,孙明娜,董旭,等.免疫分析技术在农药残留快速检测中的应用及研究进展[J].中国农学通报,2021,37(23):106-112. doi: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2020-0419

    GUO Siyi,SUN Mingna,DONG Xu,et al.Application and research progress of immunoassay technology in rapid detection of pesticide residues[J].Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin,2021,37(23):106-112. doi: 10.11924/j.issn.1000-6850.casb2020-0419
    [14] 罗俊霞,张刚,申战宾,等.胶体金免疫层析技术应用于农药残留检测的研究进展[J].农产品质量与安全,2022(1):41-49. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8255.2022.01.008

    LUO Junxia,ZHANG Gang,SHEN Zhanbin,et al.Research progress of the application of colloidal gold immunochromatography in the detection of pesticide residues[J].Quality and Safety of Agro-products,2022(1):41-49. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8255.2022.01.008
    [15] 黄惠玲, 王朝政, 庄鹏, 等.海南省蔬菜、水果中有机磷农药残留情况的调查和风险评估[J].中国卫生检验杂志, 2021, 31(13): 1 637-1 640.

    HUANG Huiling, WANG Chaozheng, ZHUANG Peng, et al.Survey and risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits in Hainan Province[J].Chinese Journal of Health Laboratory Technology, 2021, 31(13): 1 637-1 640.
    [16] 岳鹏莹.市售蔬菜中有机磷及氨基甲酸酯类农药残留分析[J].中国食品工业,2021(23):115- 116,123.
    [17] 乔雯,蔺胜田,段军艳,等.2019年泰安市蔬菜农药残留状况调查[J].预防医学论坛,2020,26(8):632-634. doi: 10.16406/j.pmt.issn.1672-9153.2020.08.020

    QIAO Wen,LIN Shengtian,DUAN Junyan,et al.Survey on pesticide residues of vegetables,Tai'an city,2019[J].Preventive Medicine Tribune,2020,26(8):632-634. doi: 10.16406/j.pmt.issn.1672-9153.2020.08.020
    [18] 段夏菲, 曾雅, 李映霞, 等.2016年−2018年广州市海珠区果品中41种有机磷类农药残留监测与分析[J].中国卫生检验杂志, 2018, 28(17): 2 152-2 155, 2 159.

    DUAN Xiafei, ZENG Ya, LI Yingxia, et al.Monitoring and analysis of 41 organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits in Haizhu District of Guangzhou, 2016−2018[J].Chinese Journal of Health Laboratory Technology, 2018, 28(17): 2 152-2 155, 2 159.
    [19] 叶雪珠,陈勇军,王延峰,等.杭州市市售蔬菜有机磷农药残留调查评价[J].浙江农业科学,2006(6):685-686. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0528-9017.2006.06.032

    YE Xuezhu,CHEN Yongjun,WANG Yanfeng,et al.Investigating and evaluating on residue of organic P pesticides in vegetable sold in markets of Hangzhou[J].Journal of Zhejiang Agricultural Sciences,2006(6):685-686. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0528-9017.2006.06.032
    [20] 任晓姣,白亚迪,王党党,等.西安市蔬菜水果有机磷农药残留规律研究[J].安徽农业科学,2017,45(1):91-93. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2017.01.029

    REN Xiaojiao,BAI Yadi,WANG Dangdang,et al.Study on organic phosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits in Xi'an[J].Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences,2017,45(1):91-93. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2017.01.029
    [21] 蔬菜中有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的快速检测: GB/T 5009.199—2003[S].
    [22] 蔬菜上有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药残毒快速检测方法: NY/T 448—2001[S].
    [23] 蔬菜中敌百虫、丙溴磷、灭多威、克百威敌敌畏残留的快速检测方法: KJ 201710[S].
    [24] 罕丽华,俸丽,李海英,等.新鲜果蔬农残快速检测中常见问题及处理:以CL-BⅢ型八通道速测仪为例[J].云南农业科技,2020(3):43-44. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0488.2020.03.019
    [25] 余朝旭,黄玉,陈月丹,等.基层蔬菜农残速测体系建设现状和发展建议:以浙江省象山县为例[J].安徽农学通报,2018,24(7):123-124. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-7731.2018.07.055
    [26] 易幸.农药残留快速检测酶抑制法局限性探讨[J].中国蔬菜,2021(2):10-12. doi: 10.19928/j.cnki.1000-6346.2021.0007
    [27] 董新义,李桂芹,李正玲,等.酶抑制法在蔬菜农药残留测定中存在的问题及对策[J].农家参谋,2019(16):84.
    [28] 张秀花, 苑婷婷, 李季, 等.蔬菜中农药残留快速检测与定量检测结果符合性分析[J].食品安全质量检测学报, 2020, 11(4): 1 281-1 287.

    ZHANG Xiuhua, YUAN Tingting, LI Ji, et al.Coincidence analysis of rapid detection and quantitative detection results of pesticide residues in vegetables[J].Journal of Food Safety and Quality, 2020, 11(4): 1 281-1 287.
    [29] 汤彤.速测卡法与酶抑制率法快速检测蔬菜中农药残留的对比研究[J].安徽农业科学,2017,45(1):102-104. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2017.01.033

    TANG Tong.A comparative study on rapid detection of pesticide residues in vegetables by measurement card and enzyme inhibition methods[J].Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences,2017,45(1):102-104. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2017.01.033
    [30] 张瑜, 魏维杰, 李岗, 等.蔬菜农药残留酶抑制法快检假阴性风险的研究[J].中国卫生检验杂志, 2018, 28(14): 1 760-1 763.

    ZHANG Yu, WEI Weijie, LI Gang, et al.Study on false-negative risk in rapid detection of pesticide residues in vegetables by enzyme inhibition rate method[J].Chinese Journal of Health Laboratory Technology, 2018, 28(14): 1 760-1 763.
    [31] 赵家允.酶抑制法检测蔬菜中有机磷农药残留[J].农村经济与科技,2018,29(4):152-153. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-7103.2018.04.108
    [32] 罗俊霞,赵建波,宋伟,等.酶抑制-比色法农残速测试剂盒检测蔬菜农药残留的结果分析[J].农业科学研究,2021,42(4):12-16. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-0747.2021.04.003

    LUO Junxia,ZHAO Jianbo,SONG Wei,et al.Analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables by enzyme inhibition colorimetric method[J].Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2021,42(4):12-16. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-0747.2021.04.003
    [33] 张立新.酶抑制法快速定性检测水果中有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药残毒方法[J].山西果树,2016(1):41-42. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-345X.2016.01.018
    [34] SUN Xia, WANG Xiangyou.Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on prussian blue-modified electrode for detecting organophosphorous pesticides[J].Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2010, 25(12): 2 611-2 614.
    [35] VIOQUE-FERNANDEZ A,ALVES De Almeida E,LOPEZ-BAREA J.Esterases as pesticide biomarkers in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii,Crustacea):tissue distribution,sensitivity to model compounds and recovery from inactivation[J].Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-toxicology & pharmacology,2007,145(3):404-412.
    [36] 宋燕飞,陈祥贵,向俊丞,等.锦龟酯酶与树鼩酯酶对部分有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药的敏感性研究[J].食品与机械,2019,35(11):58-63. doi: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2019.11.012

    SONG Yanfei,CHEN Xianggui,XIANG Juncheng,et al.Study on sensitivity of esterase from Chrysemys and Tupaiabelangeri to some organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide[J].Food & Machinery,2019,35(11):58-63. doi: 10.13652/j.issn.1003-5788.2019.11.012
    [37] 卢海强,陈伟,黄蕾,等.鲤鱼来源乙酰胆碱酯酶的高效表达及分子对接模拟[J].中国食品学报,2021,21(6):92-100.

    LU Haiqiang,CHEN Wei,HUANG Lei,et al.High-efficiency expression and molecular docking of acetylcholinesterase from the carp[J].Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology,2021,21(6):92-100.
    [38] 田华,贾继民,张建江,等.7种有机磷农药对不同来源乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的抑制作用比较[J].解放军预防医学杂志,2016,34(6):846-848. doi: 10.13704/j.cnki.jyyx.2016.06.020

    TIAN Hua,JIA Jimin,ZHANG Jianjiang,et al.Comparative analysis of inhibition of seven orgnaophosphorus pesticides to activity of acetylcholinesterase( AChE) from different sources[J].Journal of Preventive Medicine of Chinese People's Liberation Army,2016,34(6):846-848. doi: 10.13704/j.cnki.jyyx.2016.06.020
    [39] 李绮敏,郑泽洋,林丹,等.不同来源的乙酰胆碱酯酶对农药灵敏度的影响[J].安徽农学通报,2021,27(16):20-22. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-7731.2021.16.007

    LI Qimin,ZHENG Zeyang,LIN Dan,et al.Effects of acetylcholinesterase from the different sources on pesticide sensitivity[J].Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin,2021,27(16):20-22. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-7731.2021.16.007
    [40] 罗俊霞, 赵建波, 安冕, 等.6种市售酶抑制−比色法试剂盒测定有机磷农药的比较研究[J].食品安全质量检测学报, 2020, 11(22): 8 474-8 478.

    LUO Junxia, ZHAO Jianbo, AN Mian, et al.Comparative study on the determination of organo-phosphorus pesticides with 6 kinds of commercially available enzyme inhibition colorimetric kits[J].Journal of Food Safety and Quality, 2020, 11(22): 8 474-8 478.
    [41] 张欣.市售农药残留快速检测酶试剂盒对有机磷和氨基1酸酯类农药灵敏度的测定[J].农业与技术,2019,39(23):18-20.
    [42] 姜露.麦麸酯酶抑制法检测果蔬中有机磷及氨基甲酸酯类农药的研究[D].雅安: 四川农业大学, 2016.

    JIANG Lu.Enzyme inhibition determination method of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticedes with esterase from wheat bran[D].Ya'an: Sichuan Agricultural University, 2016.
    [43] 侯晓艳,姜露,叶麟,等.麦麸酯酶对有机磷及氨基甲酸酯类农药的动力学特性[J].分析测试学报,2018,37(3):324-330. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-4957.2018.03.011

    HOU Xiaoyan,JIANG Lu,YE Lin,et al.Kinetics characteristics of wheat bran esterase on organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides[J].Journal of Instrumental Analysis,2018,37(3):324-330. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-4957.2018.03.011
    [44] 陆正清,王海平,欧盛生,等.小麦酯酶在快速测定有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药中的应用研究[J].科技视界,2021(18):137-138.
    [45] 黄嫒,马志强,王玮,等.豌豆酯酶的纯化和酯酶活性表征及其对农药的敏感性[J].食品与发酵工业,2019,45(11):78-84. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.020105

    HUANG Ai,MA Zhiqiang,WANG Wei,et al.Purification,characterization and pesticides-sensitivity of plant-esterase from pisum sativum Linn[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2019,45(11):78-84. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.020105
    [46] LI Jianke,ZHOU Yanli,WEN Yanxia,et al.Studies on the purification and characterization of soybean esterase,and its sensitivity to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides[J].Agricultural Sciences in China,2009,8(4):455-463. doi: 10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60232-1
    [47] 罗俊霞,赵建波,刘伟,等.农产品质量安全快速检测试剂盒评价方法研究[J].农产品质量与安全,2019(2):62-66. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8255.2019.02.017

    LUO Junxia,ZHAO Jianbo,LIU Wei,et al.Evaluation methods of rapid detection kits for agro-product quality and safety[J].Quality and Safety of Agro-products,2019(2):62-66. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8255.2019.02.017
    [48] 金莉莉.基于微流控纸芯片技术的有机磷和氨基甲酸酯类农药残留快速检测研究[D].北京: 中国农业科学院, 2019.

    JIN Lili.Rapid detection of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues based on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices[D].Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2019.
    [49] 姜露,叶麟,杨雪,等.不同前处理对植物酯酶抑制法检测蔬菜中有机磷及氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的影响[J].食品与发酵工业,2016,42(1):200-204. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.201601037

    JIANG Lu,YE Lin,YANG Xue,et al.Effect of different pre-treatment methods on detection results of organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by plant esterase inhibition method[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2016,42(1):200-204. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.201601037
    [50] 王文珺,叶升锋,谢艳红,等.建立一种增强酶抑制法快速检测谷物中有机磷农药残留[J].食品工业科技,2020,41(21):224-229.

    WANG Wenjun,YE Shengfeng,XIE Yanhong,et al.Establishment of an enhanced enzyme inhibition assay for rapid detection of organophosphrous pesticides residues in grain[J].Science and Technology of Food Industry,2020,41(21):224-229.
    [51] 桑园园,柴丽娜,魏朝俊,等.酶抑制法检测4种辛辣蔬菜农药残留假阳性消除的研究[J].中国农学通报,2009,25(11):60-64.

    SANG Yuanyuan,CHAI Lina,WEI Chaojun,et al.Study on eliminating false positive results of pesticide residues in four acrid vegetables with enzyme inhibition assay[J].Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin,2009,25(11):60-64.
    [52] 姜露,叶麟,侯晓艳,等.麦麸酯酶抑制法检测辛辣蔬菜假阳性消除的研究[J].食品与发酵工业,2021,47(4):247-252. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.025009

    JIANG Lu,YE Lin,HOU Xiaoyan,et al.Elimination of false positive in the detection of spicy vegetables by wheat bran esterase-inhibition method[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2021,47(4):247-252. doi: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.025009
    [53] 蓝小飞, 谢琳.酶速测法检测茭白中农药残留的假阳性消除方法[J].食品安全质量检测学报, 2019, 10(10): 3 138-3 144.

    LAN Xiaofei, XIE Lin.Method for eliminating false positive results of pesticide residues in zizania by enzyme speed method[J].Journal of Food Safety and Quality, 2019, 10(10): 3 138-3 144.
    [54] 郑金武,江晓燕.蔬菜农药残留快速检测中消除假阳性的检测方法[J].安徽农学通报,2012,18(19): 189,192. doi: 10.16377/j.cnki.issn1007-7731.2012.19.050
    [55] 黄艳华,李文婷,冯少红.农残速测技术在基层农产品质量安全检测工作中的应用及发展建议[J].宁夏农林科技,2018,59(1):39- 42,2. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-204X.2018.01.014

    HUANG Yanhua,LI Wenting,FENG Shaohong.Application and countermeasures of rapid detection technology of pesticide residue for primary agricultural product quality and safety[J].Ningxia Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Science and Technology,2018,59(1):39- 42,2. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-204X.2018.01.014
    [56] 栾云霞,李杨,平华,等.基于酶抑制法的农药残留快速检测仪器现状及评价[J].食品安全质量检测学报,2012,3(6):690-694.

    LUAN Yunxia,LI Yang,PING Hua,et al.Development and effective evaluation of rapid detection instruments of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables based on enzyme inhibition method[J].Journal of Food Safety and Quality,2012,3(6):690-694.
    [57] 王晓燕.农残速测技术在基层农产品质量安全检测中的应用及发展建议[J].中国果菜,2015,35(8):28-30. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-1038.2015.08.011

    WANG Xiaoyan.The situation and suggestions of pesticide residues rapid detection used in agricultural products detection in basic level area[J].China Fruit aVegetable,2015,35(8):28-30. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-1038.2015.08.011
    [58] 张海霞.不同型号农药残留速测仪比对[J].吉林蔬菜,2014(3):29-30. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-0180.2014.03.022
    [59] 黄德聪,李悦.简述基于酶抑制法的农药残留快速检测仪器现状及评价[J].农业与技术,2015,35(8):243.
  • 加载中
表(1)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  16
  • HTML全文浏览量:  2
  • PDF下载量:  1
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-13
  • 修回日期:  2022-06-09
  • 出版日期:  2022-08-20

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回